Image credit: Kim Ki Chang, Green Mountain Painting / 1970 Color on silk 82 x 101 cm
|臨江仙 – 楊愼
|临江仙 – 杨慎
|Línjiāng xiān – Yáng Shèn
gǔngǔn chángjiāng dōng zhè shuǐ
lànghuā táo jǐn yīngxióng
shìfēi chéngbài zhuǎn tóu kōng
qīng shān yījiù zài
jǐdù xīyáng hóng
bái fà yú qiáo jiāng zhǔ shàng
guàn kàn qiūyuè chūnfēng
yī hú zhuójiǔ xǐ xiāngféng
gǔjīn duōshǎo shì
dōu fù xiàotán zhōng
|Transliteration of Hanja||Romanization|
|『임강선』 – 양신
|『im gang seon』 – Yang Sin
gon gon jang-gang dong jeol su
nanghwa do jin yeong-oong
sibi seongpae jeon du gong
cheong san uigu jae
gi do seokyang hong
baek bal eo cho gang jeo sang
gwan gan chuwol choonpoong
il ho tak ju hwae sangbong
gogeum daso sa
do bu sodam joong
|Translation into Korean||Romanization|
|『도도장강』 – 양신
동쪽으로 꺾여 흐르는 도도한 장강의 물결에
거품처럼 사라진 영웅들이여!
시비와 성패가 무슨 소용이 있겠고
청산은 의구하다 하지만
몇 번이나 석양을 붉게 물었을까?
강심의 섬 안에 숨어사는 백발의 어부들는
가을달과 봄바람을 구경하면서
탁주 한 병 들고 서로 만나
고금의 수많은 크고 작은 일들을
웃음 속의 담소에 담았다네
|『dodojang-gang』 – Yang Sin
dongjjog-eulo kkeokk-yeo heuleuneun dodohan jang-gang-ui mulgyeol-e
geopumcheoleom salajin yeong-ungdeul-iyeo!
sibiwa seongpaega museun soyong-i eetgetgo
cheongsan-eun uigoohada hajiman
myeot beon-ina seo-gyang-eul bulg-ge mul-eoss-eulkka?
gangsim-ui seom aneh soomeosaneun baekbal-ui eobudeulneun
ga-euldalgwa bombalam-eul gugyeong-hamyeonseo
takju han byeong deulgo seolo man-na
gogeum-ui soomahn-eun keugo jageun ildeul-eul
ooseum sogui damso-e dam-atdaneh
滾滾たる 長江 東に逝（ゆ）く 水，
浪花は 英雄を 淘（あら）ひ尽くす。
是非 成敗 頭を 転ずれば 空なり。
青山 旧に依りて 在り，
幾度の 夕陽 紅し。
白髪 漁樵 江渚の上，
看るに 慣れたり 秋月 春風を。
一壺の 濁酒 相ひ逢ふを 喜ぶ。
都（すべ）て 談笑の中に 付す。
|「Rinkō Sen」 – Yō Shin
Konkontaru Nagae azuma ni yuku mizu,
Naniwa wa eiyū o tō ara hi tsukusu.
Zehi seibai atama o tenzureba soranari.
Aoyama kyū ni yorite ari,
ikudo no yūhi akashi.
Shiraga gyoshō kō sho no ue,
miru ni nare tari shūgetsu harukaze o.
Ichi tsubo no dakushu ai hi hō fu o yorokobu.
Kokon tashō no koto wa,
subete danshō no naka ni fusu.
English: (for meaning purposes)
Riverbank Fairy – Yang Shen, trans. John Balcom
Rolling, rolling the Yangtze flows east,
The waves washing away heroes.
Right and wrong, success and failure, all empty.
The green mountains remain,
How many red sunsets?
White-haired fisherman by the riverside,
Watching the autumn moon and spring breeze;
A pot of unstrained wine welcomes me again.
How many events, from antiquity until now,
Are matter for our laughter and talk?
This poem was composed by Yang Shen (1488-1559) to the rhythm of a previous poem called “Riverbank Fairy” by Li Yu (c.937-978) and is a proem for the classic Chinese novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms by Luo Guanzhong (c.1330-1400 or c.1280-1360); however, the novel’s original text did not contain the poem until the 1660s, when Mao Lun and Mao Zonggang edited the text. Nevertheless, the poem is a recognized part of the classic and is one of the few literary works valued by the Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese. Therefore, the Yang Shen’s poem was translated to Korean and Japanese. The scripts of the languages demonstrate the density of Chinese compared to Korean and Japanese. Japanese adds helper hiragana characters between kanji characters while Korean utilizes longer grammatical structures with some hanja (traditional Chinese script) based words written in hangeul (Korean script).
All three translations include the word Blue-Green Mountain (Chinese靑山, Korean 청산, Japanese 青山 (あおやま)). The character 靑 in Chinese means green or blue depending on context; in Korean, 청 can mean blue or green or blue-green regardless of context; in Japanese, 青 means blue or even black unless it describes a plant, in which case it would be green. This contributes to the different nuances of 靑山 for all three languages. Moreover, perceptions of 靑山 differ due to different cultural backgrounds. The Chinese perception of green hills stretches from beautiful imagery to longing for prosperity. For Koreans, the word would call to mind a Goryeo dynasty (918-1392) folk song called 청산별곡 (Cheong San Byeol Gok), where the speaker longs to live in green hills and a peaceful life: the color 청 elicits a sense of peace. In Japan, 青山 also functions as prevalent surname, and therefore country name, due to the abundance of blue/green hills in Japan. All these nuances combine to form a purer meaning of靑山, that incorporates the images of prosperity, inner peace, and natural landscape. One can wonder if this is the closest to the green hills where China, Korea, and Japan forget past grievances and collaborate to create purity.